Are Algal Blooms Becoming Worse?

The problems associated with harmful algal bloom (HABs) have become tremendous, resulting to huge economic deficit and serious health issues. The accumulation of HABs in public and commercial water systems has been rampant, inflicting critical health and ecological problems among waterways and wetlands around the world.Most problems attached with HABs infestation are economic related which include lost of revenue, consumer fears, and shift in livelihoods. Almost $82 million loss has been recorded each year in United States alone due to the impact of harmful algae bloom. The total estimated deficit was taken from public health and commercial fisheries sectors in U.S. In 2005, New England’s economy was paralyzed due to Alexandrium fundyense bloom (commonly known as red tide). Closure of shellfish harvesting had been mandated to prevent the cases of shellfish poisoning, and this brought massive loss, approximately $18 million, in the shellfish industry. Texas did not escape the threat of algal bloom as the Karenia brevis outbreak caused chaos in the coastal waters. In the height of summer 2000, the fish kills spread in many areas in Texas which prompted the closure of shellfish harvesting, resulting to millions of deficit from fishery closures and costs from water cleanup.Toxic algal bloom is being feared for its damaging effects on commercial fisheries and marine environments. Algal bloom effects include the production of harmful toxins that are dangerous or fatal to humans and other organisms. Meanwhile, some species of algae can be non-toxic to humans and animals but adversely damage the ecosystem by forming large blooms that cover corals and the entire sea floor. Human health and ecosystem are at stake when HABs increase and remain untreated.So what is algal bloom? Some species of algae, including cyanobacteria, are responsible for blooms. Algal bloom happens when the population of algae increase rapidly, causing damaging effects to aquatic environments. Lakes, ponds, and slow-moving rivers are prone to algal bloom infestation.Algae bloom is a natural phenomenon that may arise invariably, depending on weather and water conditions. Blooms are widespread during summer or spring due to the sudden change in temperature. Most algal blooms crop up under favourable conditions: excess nutrients, direct heat, and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen. However, human activity greatly contributes to the expansion of algae bloom. For example, in urban areas, the nutrients from septic tanks and sewage treatment plants can overflow and pollute the waterways or systems. Likewise, in rural areas, agricultural runoff from pesticides and other waste coming from fields may increase the pollution from water features such as lakes, rivers and estuaries.An algal bloom is also part of the natural aging process of lake. However, severe blooms occur when dead algae deplete the levels of oxygen in the water. In highly eutrophic lakes, algal blooms may lead to anoxia and fish kills during the summer.It is advisable to expedite the removal of HABS on commercial fisheries and other marine waters to prevent further damage. There are number of algae solutions formulated to treat and prevent algae infestation.

Radiology gets “Presidential” focus

If you were like most people not too long ago, you heard the news that former President Bill Clinton was admitted into the hospital with chest pains. Had it been a different era, hospital professionals would be faced with the real possibility of doing exploratory surgery on President Clinton. That procedure could very well cause death due to riskiness and exposure to germs. Yet, a mere 3 hours later, he had a simple procedure done and was released to recuperate at home. It’s amazing how far the healthcare industry has come, isn’t it? The fact that a president of our country who receives superior healthcare relied on the technology of radiology which is commonplace in hospitals makes an important statement as to the strides we have made.However, it is important to note that while radiology technology is crucial to diagnosing a health issue, there is one component that is even more important to recognize what keeps radiology results so accurate. Cleaning radiology equipment is crucial to producing clear images which is what diagnoses are made from.How do you keep equipment in top condition? The answer is simple, purchase radiology supplies to keep the equipment clean and in top working order. Let’s face it; the beauty of this technology is that something as detailed as a hairline fracture can be detected easily with these machines. If you neglect to properly care for these machines, simple diagnosis is lost and possible unnecessary surgery ensues. If you are a healthcare professional, be sure to keep a good inventory of radiology supplies on hand. You’ll be glad you did.

The Importance of Radiology Supplies

Healthcare has advanced by leaps and bounds and nowhere is it more apparent than in the field of radiology. Most people may associate a few key procedures with radiology, but the fact of the matter is that more advancement has been made in this field than patients realize.For example, when patients are admitted to the hospital with strange symptoms and doctors are unsure how to proceed, the next course of action was customary to perform “exploratory. Not only was this type of surgery painful but carried an unusually high risk for infection.Radiology has given the gift of protection as well as pin-pointing problems in a painless and precise procedure. It’s no wonder that hospitals, doctors, vets and other types of professionals and facilities utilize this medical invention. The types of medical problems that benefit from radiology can be: identifying cancer, problematic arteries with regard to heart function, broken bones and getting a look at an infant via an ultrasound.The key to this accurate medical procedure is keeping radiology supplies and equipment clean. There are quite a few radiology supplies that are required to do a proper job of evaluating health issues such as X-Ray equipment cleaner, Ultrasound paper, Disinfectant, Lighting, Mailing and filing envelopes, Marker sets, Towels, Wipes and Veterinary products as well. Proper cleaning of these radiology supplies eliminates the possibility of germs and provides a clear and clean view of an affected area. Whether radiology is used to check a problematic artery on a loved one or an expectant mother’s baby development, the benefits of using this technology is priceless.

Fingerprint Access Control

Passwords are still the weakest link in a security system. Biometric access control systems would have prevented the recent data breaches at Sony and Gawker.There are a plethora of examples one can give of security breaches where a company didn’t just incur millions of dollars in damage, they also lost the trust of their customers. Access control systems that still use the traditional password system are still in danger of security breaches that could happen at any time. Even in the face of such examples, companies still make simple mistakes like using weak passwords and not changing them often. According to some reports, more than 70% of security breaches are carried out with the help of an insider who exploits his or her access to service and administrative accounts even after they have left the company a long time ago.The recent security breaches at Sony and Gawker highlight the vulnerability of the password system. Phishing or key loggers can easily be used to steal the password, among various other methods that exist.Security experts say that an organization should have a more personalized and multilayered approach in order to make their valuable data more secure from cyber attacks. Furthermore, companies do not wish to cause any inconvenience to their users and employees and, therefore, do not take the steps necessary to ensure a more fool-proof security system. What is required is a security system that identifies a person instead of a code. This is where Biometric access control systems come into play, especially fingerprint access control systems.The use of such access control systems will guarantee that only the correct individual is identified and granted access to the system. Fingerprint access control systems save the unique fingerprint of a person in its database and grant access only to them. This is the most efficient manner in which the movement of people in a system can be monitored.A modern and technologically advanced fingerprint access control system is equipped with a scanner that captures a high resolution image of the fingerprint. These systems have gained acceptance in a number of places like banks, hospitals, etc. and are increasingly being used in place of password systems to mark attendance and grant access.

Stem Cell Clinical Trials and the Challenges

Stem Cell Clinical Trials and the Challenges The therapeutic stem cell and Advanced Therapeutic Medicinal Product (ATMP) market is continuing to develop. Over the last two years the focus of industry discussion groups within the UK has moved forward from research techniques during development to the challenges of GMP manufacturing these products. Once manufacturing issues are resolved focus will move onto the challenges of stem cell clinical trials. The difficulties of obtaining approval from authorities to conduct the trials will be the main focus of the sponsor. With these challenges ahead, there may be little time to focus on the actual method of labelling, storage and distribution of the product to the trial sites. Challenges of Stem Cell Clinical Trials Phase I trials are generally conducted at a single site with a single investigator and a close relationship between the investigator and the sponsor. The investigator in these trials is often a pioneer in their field and closely involved with the development of the product. Trials involving autologous products require collection of cells, processing of the cells and delivery back to the cell donor; this whole operation may be conducted on a single site or alternatively it may require transport to a separate site for cell processing and then return of the material to the same patient. Although the manipulation of the material and the technology to process the cells is extremely complex, the logistics of the trial are relatively simple. It requires secure traceability of the sample, obtained by following good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines and a validated shipper, which transports the material at the desired temperature between the patient and the processing site. Following production and labelling the material will require confirmation that it is GMP compliant; in the EU this is confirmed by a Qualified Person (QP). At Phase II the study is likely to take place at more than one investigator site. For autologous treatments this has the added complication of more than one patient’s treatment being processed at the same time. Traceability of samples is critical and the synchronisation of patients, the manufacturing site and QP availability becomes more complex. Competent project management and good planning should overcome these difficulties. Additionally tracking systems for these samples using patient biometrics are being developed which would flag up an incorrect sample being returned to a patient. Allogeneic products are derived from stem cells which are used to treat people other than the donor. These cells are typically manufactured in batches, on a larger scale and may be intended for use in trials in a number of countries. Labelling Solutions One issue faced with clinical trials of ATMP products is ensuring regulatory compliant labelling. The primary containers must be labelled during the manufacture and prior to freezing. Consideration needs to be given to the labelling process of the primary containers ,once frozen to -80 or -196??C, the primary container cannot be labelled , therefore producing bulk unlabelled batches and then determining which trials the stock will be allocated to at a later date is not possible. Distribution Once the product is packed in primary containers (units), it may be shipped to a second site for secondary packaging, storage and distribution to clinical sites. This is similar to the logistics of more traditional pharmaceuticals. For example, bulk batches of labelled material could be shipped from the manufacturer to a storage site. These could then be assembled into kits in a cryostorage box, containing enough material to dose one patient. Alternatively, to avoid cell wastage material could be handled with a ‘just in time’ packing method, which has proved successful in more conventional drug trials where the drug is either very scarce or very expensive. Receipt at the investigational site would be simpler using the kit model, the site would not have to record receipt of each individual tube into inventory. In addition the secondary container could be tamper proof, giving added protection to the primary tubes. This can be particularly important if the cells are to be stored at the investigator site’s own cryostorage facilities rather than in the nitrogen shipper, as cross contamination could be a risk. None of the issues in the clinical trial supply chain of stem cell products are impossible to overcome as long as there is consideration very early in the trial process for the method of labelling, distribution and on site storage of the product. Even for conventional products, it is a challenge to persuade sponsors to carefully consider the clinical supply chain at a sufficiently early stage. For stem cell products this is perhaps even more essential and it will be a continued challenge over the coming years for the supply chain companies capable of supporting ATMPs to engage with sponsors at an early enough stage to ensure the provision of a service that can meet patient recruitment needs and is affordable for the sponsors.

Biomass Resources

Whether based on a large scale instead of conventional fossil fuels, and biomass will be divided into traditional and modern biomass. Including traditional biomass energy use in rural life: firewood, straw, rice straw, rice husk and other agricultural production and animal manure and other waste; modern large-scale application of biomass is biomass, including modern forestry production of waste, bagasse and municipal solid waste.According to different sources, would be suitable for biomass energy use into forestry resources, agricultural resources, domestic sewage and industrial organic wastewater, municipal solid waste and animal manure and other five categories.(1) Forest Resources forest biomass resources is the process of forest growth and forest production to provide biomass sources, including firewood in the forest tending and thinning operations in scattered timber, residual branches, leaves and wood chips, etc.; timber harvesting transport and processing of the branches, sawdust, wood chips, Shaotou, slab and cut top; forestry by-products of waste, if the shell and stone, etc.(2) agricultural resources agricultural biomass resource is agricultural crops (including energy crops); agricultural production process waste, such as when left in the fields harvesting crops within the crop stalks (corn stalks, sorghum stalks, wheat straw, rice straw, Doujie and cotton stalks, etc.); agricultural processing waste, such as the agricultural production process in the remaining rice husk, etc. Energy refers to a variety of plants to provide energy, plants, usually herbaceous energy crops, including, oil crops, extraction of hydrocarbons and other types of plants and aquatic plants.(3) of domestic sewage and industrial organic wastewater sewage mainly by urban residents, commerce and services a variety of drainage component, such as cooling water, shower drain, toilet drain, laundry drain, kitchen drain, waste water and so on. Industrial organic wastewater is mainly alcohol, wine, sugar, food, pharmaceutical, paper making industry and slaughter of the production process of the wastewater, etc., which are rich in organic matter.(4) municipal solid waste, municipal solid waste mainly by the urban living garbage, commercial garbage service and a small amount of construction waste and other solid waste composition. Its composition is complex, affected by the average standard of living of local residents, the energy consumption structure, urban construction, natural conditions, customs and traditions as well as seasonal changes and other factors.

Geneology Files

At some stage in documenting your family tree, it is important to start in search of files of your family. They speak on behalf of those who came before you! The important issue is how to find these. The obvious place is to search online for facts. Some internet sites have popped up throughout the years just as people look to previous times to find out their roots. Here are some to see:RootswebExactlty what can you expect to find on these web sites? Birth together with death certificates, marriage licenses together with divorce decrees, military services records and in some cases tax information in many cases. And a second spot to look for these records is in your home town or perhaps the hometowns of your family members.Public offices, clearks and even courts make the perfect spot to check for [url=]geneology records[/url].You might also prefer to check with local newspapers for obituaries. All of these small summaries could maintain evidence to spouses, children, parents along with siblings of your ancestors. Churches may possibly as well own significant information to peice together your past. Baptisms, christenings, first communions, and so on., may be written about and even on file and also offer valuable dates and also names.The superior news is that you are gathering up information and also adding it to your collection of data so that others won’t really need to reinvent the wheel! And with the web pages, you can select to scan virtually any records you find together with upload them onto the web to share with others in their family search.

Physical and Chemical Methods of Liquid Dispersion

The techniques that are used in the dispersion of powders in both aqueous and non-aqueous media are quite similar. Dispersants aid wetting and stabilization of a suspension can be ionic (anionicor cationic) or non-ionic. However, concentrations of dispersants must be low. Otherwise, their properties are reduced or even inverted (i.e., cause aggregation or flocculation). In dispersing a powder in a non-aqueous medium, it is critical to select an organic solvent that is a good diluent as well as dispersant, although there are many organic dispersant aids. Aqueous surfactants are primarily responsible for reducing surface tension, hence aiding in the dispersion of powders in aqueous systems. The first task in dispersing a dry powder is the wetting of the sample with diluentor dispersant, if needed. Gentle spatulation of the resulting paste prior to addition of diluent further aids the dispersion process. Once the diluent is added, a sample of the slurry can be placed on a slide for a microscopic evaluation of the effectiveness of dispersion. Providing that the sample is well dispersed, the use of a magnetic stir bar is suggested to keep the sample fully dispersed, so are presentative sample can be drawn for analysis while stirring is in progress. Physical Methods of Liquid Dispersion Chemical Methods of Liquid Dispersion Wetting agents:Used to lower surface tension (e.g., hydrophobicity) between diluent (typically water) and particle (usually non-ionic agent). Surfactants: “Surface active agents” increase the surface charge of the particles in order to cause them to repel one another so that they remain properly dispersed while in the suspension.Types of surfactants include: Stabilization by Surface Charge Common Ions Multiple-charged Ions Surfactant Ions which charge the surface Reference –