Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses on engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bio-products. Biotechnology/Life sciences are amongst the leading and most significant applied sciences in today’s era. Biotechnology is one of the latest developed sciences and evolved on the basis of proteomics and genomics. It is a research oriented and firmemerging inter-disciplinary field. The Pathfinder academy provides you an opportunity to get involved with the latest developing sciences which is future promising too.Founded back in the year 2003, Pathfinder academy was a result of the travail of great visionary Mr. Pranay Kumar, scholar from JNU, New Delhi and visiting faculty Dept. of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. It was established with the goal of providing a priceless opportunity to those aspirants who want a distinguished and shining future in biotechnology/life sciences.It was his ambition and toil that made Pathfinder Academy, a pioneer institute that is contributing the nation with coaching for biotechnology entrance examinations and CSIR-JRF-NET/GATE and help them seek admission in leading institutes for higher education with a strong established foundation. There is nothing that precludes us from being informed, modified, rendered, furnished and be up-to-date.At Pathfinder academy, we believe in application of biotechnology for the benefit of agronomy, environment, engineering and veterinary and human medications. For this, we develop mutually advantageous relationships with industry and concerned establishments to conduct research and economy transmission. As a personal responsibility towards society, we try to initiate and runinformative educational programs to ensure the large scale propagation of academic innovations to all strata of society. Pathfinder academy also takes various steps in promoting the education and training of biologists, engineers, agricultural personnel and medical technologists in the fields of genomic research, economic development and educational accessibility which are the pillars of biotechnology. We encourage our brilliant faculty, staff and aspiring scholars to exploit the extensive research amenities, interacting with commercial enterprises and provide them with wide variety of training services like Academic projects, Industrial training and workshops, etc.Biotechnology has proved to have incredible career prospects now and in future and Pathfinder welcomes you to interact and function in the most challenging and inviting discipline in sciences gaining both knowledge and career perspectives. For more details please visit:
Category Archives: biotechnology
An improved algorithm of structural images of biological object for optical coherence tomography, which allows to increase the depth of coherent sensing and get a better quality picture. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged in the late eighties, early nineties of the twentieth century.  At the beginning of XXI century, it took its place in a number of medical diagnostic equipment. OCT uses optical signal reflected from the surfaces of different optical density, and in many ways is similar to ultrasound (U.S.) diagnosis. The probing depth of dense tissues OCT systems using wavelength ?? = 900 – 1300 nm, is 1-2 mm, which is significantly less than that of ultrasound systems [2, 3] and X-ray devices . Due to the strong scattering of optical radiation in the dense biological tissues, OCT systems are used primarily for the study of the cornea, vitreous and retina. However, the resolution of OCT systems for one, two orders of magnitude higher resolution ultrasound systems for similar research, which is about 1 – 0.1 mm . The aim of this work – to provide an improved algorithm for constructing the structural OCT images of biological object to allowing to increase the depth of coherent sensing and an image with high contrast and informative. Electrical signal received from the detectors OCT included in the balanced circuit, is amplified and digitized by the ADC mean intensity of the radiation reflected from the biological object. Preparation of 2-axis images of the interference signal is reduced to the construction of a spectrogram. The spectrogram is a function of two variables: time and frequency. That is, the interference signal as a function of one variable (time) is converted into a spectrogram is a function of two variables. To construct a spectrogram interference signal is divided into short time segments of equal length. Each of these segments is applied fast Fourier transform (STFT, among LabVIEW). At each of the segments of the spectrum is a complex-valued function of sample number (or time). It is known that a complex-valued function can not be built in one coordinate system in the plane. Therefore, the analysis of the spectrum usually build amplitude and phase spectra of any signal. The amplitude spectrum is a module of the complex spectrum and the phase – his argument. The spectrogram is a combination of the amplitude spectra, calculated on short segments, a function of two variables, or matrix. Similar treatment algorithm is shown in Figure 1. The algorithm can distinguish five fundamentally important stages: “Splitting the signal”, “Fourier transform”, “Isolation of the envelope”, “The logarithm of the envelope”, “Writing data to the matrix” Figure 1 – The processing algorithm of the electrical signal from the detectors optical coherence tomography The next stage of the signal processing is to use the fast Fourier transform to each segment. Since the path difference scanning interferometer arms varies continuously scanning optical delay line, theoretically window Fourier transform, must also move continuously at one point, but it makes the signal processing is quite long, on the order of minutes. Empirically, it has been shown that the signal processing is shifted to the window of 70-80% has the same contrast ratio as well as the continuous shift – to a point. It takes 2 – 5 seconds when using a computer with average parameters (single-core processor 2.4 GHz, 512 MB RAM). Using a powerful computer and specialized software, this time can be reduced to one second. This approach delivers images in real time and visual feedback when using live biomedical facility. Signal processing is shifted windows by 70-80% – is an important feature of our proposed treatment of the electrical signal.  The next stage of the signal processing is to separate the spectral envelope of the signal received by the Fourier transform of each segment. An important feature of the received signal is its symmetry with respect to zero,the optical path difference of the waves. This is explained by the fact that the result of the Fourier transform is complex function, the real part of which is symmetric, and the imaginary antisymmetric. Since in real applications is a real part of the signal or its magnitude, the reconstructed signal has a balanced view. In addition to the symmetry of the signal spectral OCT has another important feature – the imposition of a mirror of the complex conjugate signal. If the optical path difference between the reference wave and the wave of the biological object is zero useful signal is superimposed on the autocorrelation component, in which case there will be multiple image artifacts. This can be avoided by placing biological object so that his first boundary was removed from the position of zero path difference of the waves in the interferometer by an amount greater than the optical thickness of the object itself.  The next stage will be the logarithm of the envelope interference signal of each segment. It is necessary to correct symmetry. When logarithm removed part located below the zero path difference of the waves. The final step is to combine the processing of amplitude spectra, calculated on short segments in the matrix. The data basis for this matrix imaging. Literature
The problems associated with harmful algal bloom (HABs) have become tremendous, resulting to huge economic deficit and serious health issues. The accumulation of HABs in public and commercial water systems has been rampant, inflicting critical health and ecological problems among waterways and wetlands around the world.Most problems attached with HABs infestation are economic related which include lost of revenue, consumer fears, and shift in livelihoods. Almost $82 million loss has been recorded each year in United States alone due to the impact of harmful algae bloom. The total estimated deficit was taken from public health and commercial fisheries sectors in U.S. In 2005, New England’s economy was paralyzed due to Alexandrium fundyense bloom (commonly known as red tide). Closure of shellfish harvesting had been mandated to prevent the cases of shellfish poisoning, and this brought massive loss, approximately $18 million, in the shellfish industry. Texas did not escape the threat of algal bloom as the Karenia brevis outbreak caused chaos in the coastal waters. In the height of summer 2000, the fish kills spread in many areas in Texas which prompted the closure of shellfish harvesting, resulting to millions of deficit from fishery closures and costs from water cleanup.Toxic algal bloom is being feared for its damaging effects on commercial fisheries and marine environments. Algal bloom effects include the production of harmful toxins that are dangerous or fatal to humans and other organisms. Meanwhile, some species of algae can be non-toxic to humans and animals but adversely damage the ecosystem by forming large blooms that cover corals and the entire sea floor. Human health and ecosystem are at stake when HABs increase and remain untreated.So what is algal bloom? Some species of algae, including cyanobacteria, are responsible for blooms. Algal bloom happens when the population of algae increase rapidly, causing damaging effects to aquatic environments. Lakes, ponds, and slow-moving rivers are prone to algal bloom infestation.Algae bloom is a natural phenomenon that may arise invariably, depending on weather and water conditions. Blooms are widespread during summer or spring due to the sudden change in temperature. Most algal blooms crop up under favourable conditions: excess nutrients, direct heat, and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen. However, human activity greatly contributes to the expansion of algae bloom. For example, in urban areas, the nutrients from septic tanks and sewage treatment plants can overflow and pollute the waterways or systems. Likewise, in rural areas, agricultural runoff from pesticides and other waste coming from fields may increase the pollution from water features such as lakes, rivers and estuaries.An algal bloom is also part of the natural aging process of lake. However, severe blooms occur when dead algae deplete the levels of oxygen in the water. In highly eutrophic lakes, algal blooms may lead to anoxia and fish kills during the summer.It is advisable to expedite the removal of HABS on commercial fisheries and other marine waters to prevent further damage. There are number of algae solutions formulated to treat and prevent algae infestation.
Healthcare has advanced by leaps and bounds and nowhere is it more apparent than in the field of radiology. Most people may associate a few key procedures with radiology, but the fact of the matter is that more advancement has been made in this field than patients realize.For example, when patients are admitted to the hospital with strange symptoms and doctors are unsure how to proceed, the next course of action was customary to perform “exploratory. Not only was this type of surgery painful but carried an unusually high risk for infection.Radiology has given the gift of protection as well as pin-pointing problems in a painless and precise procedure. It’s no wonder that hospitals, doctors, vets and other types of professionals and facilities utilize this medical invention. The types of medical problems that benefit from radiology can be: identifying cancer, problematic arteries with regard to heart function, broken bones and getting a look at an infant via an ultrasound.The key to this accurate medical procedure is keeping radiology supplies and equipment clean. There are quite a few radiology supplies that are required to do a proper job of evaluating health issues such as X-Ray equipment cleaner, Ultrasound paper, Disinfectant, Lighting, Mailing and filing envelopes, Marker sets, Towels, Wipes and Veterinary products as well. Proper cleaning of these radiology supplies eliminates the possibility of germs and provides a clear and clean view of an affected area. Whether radiology is used to check a problematic artery on a loved one or an expectant mother’s baby development, the benefits of using this technology is priceless.
Stem Cell Clinical Trials and the Challenges The therapeutic stem cell and Advanced Therapeutic Medicinal Product (ATMP) market is continuing to develop. Over the last two years the focus of industry discussion groups within the UK has moved forward from research techniques during development to the challenges of GMP manufacturing these products. Once manufacturing issues are resolved focus will move onto the challenges of stem cell clinical trials. The difficulties of obtaining approval from authorities to conduct the trials will be the main focus of the sponsor. With these challenges ahead, there may be little time to focus on the actual method of labelling, storage and distribution of the product to the trial sites. Challenges of Stem Cell Clinical Trials Phase I trials are generally conducted at a single site with a single investigator and a close relationship between the investigator and the sponsor. The investigator in these trials is often a pioneer in their field and closely involved with the development of the product. Trials involving autologous products require collection of cells, processing of the cells and delivery back to the cell donor; this whole operation may be conducted on a single site or alternatively it may require transport to a separate site for cell processing and then return of the material to the same patient. Although the manipulation of the material and the technology to process the cells is extremely complex, the logistics of the trial are relatively simple. It requires secure traceability of the sample, obtained by following good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines and a validated shipper, which transports the material at the desired temperature between the patient and the processing site. Following production and labelling the material will require confirmation that it is GMP compliant; in the EU this is confirmed by a Qualified Person (QP). At Phase II the study is likely to take place at more than one investigator site. For autologous treatments this has the added complication of more than one patient’s treatment being processed at the same time. Traceability of samples is critical and the synchronisation of patients, the manufacturing site and QP availability becomes more complex. Competent project management and good planning should overcome these difficulties. Additionally tracking systems for these samples using patient biometrics are being developed which would flag up an incorrect sample being returned to a patient. Allogeneic products are derived from stem cells which are used to treat people other than the donor. These cells are typically manufactured in batches, on a larger scale and may be intended for use in trials in a number of countries. Labelling Solutions One issue faced with clinical trials of ATMP products is ensuring regulatory compliant labelling. The primary containers must be labelled during the manufacture and prior to freezing. Consideration needs to be given to the labelling process of the primary containers ,once frozen to -80 or -196??C, the primary container cannot be labelled , therefore producing bulk unlabelled batches and then determining which trials the stock will be allocated to at a later date is not possible. Distribution Once the product is packed in primary containers (units), it may be shipped to a second site for secondary packaging, storage and distribution to clinical sites. This is similar to the logistics of more traditional pharmaceuticals. For example, bulk batches of labelled material could be shipped from the manufacturer to a storage site. These could then be assembled into kits in a cryostorage box, containing enough material to dose one patient. Alternatively, to avoid cell wastage material could be handled with a ‘just in time’ packing method, which has proved successful in more conventional drug trials where the drug is either very scarce or very expensive. Receipt at the investigational site would be simpler using the kit model, the site would not have to record receipt of each individual tube into inventory. In addition the secondary container could be tamper proof, giving added protection to the primary tubes. This can be particularly important if the cells are to be stored at the investigator site’s own cryostorage facilities rather than in the nitrogen shipper, as cross contamination could be a risk. None of the issues in the clinical trial supply chain of stem cell products are impossible to overcome as long as there is consideration very early in the trial process for the method of labelling, distribution and on site storage of the product. Even for conventional products, it is a challenge to persuade sponsors to carefully consider the clinical supply chain at a sufficiently early stage. For stem cell products this is perhaps even more essential and it will be a continued challenge over the coming years for the supply chain companies capable of supporting ATMPs to engage with sponsors at an early enough stage to ensure the provision of a service that can meet patient recruitment needs and is affordable for the sponsors.
Whether based on a large scale instead of conventional fossil fuels, and biomass will be divided into traditional and modern biomass. Including traditional biomass energy use in rural life: firewood, straw, rice straw, rice husk and other agricultural production and animal manure and other waste; modern large-scale application of biomass is biomass, including modern forestry production of waste, bagasse and municipal solid waste.According to different sources, would be suitable for biomass energy use into forestry resources, agricultural resources, domestic sewage and industrial organic wastewater, municipal solid waste and animal manure and other five categories.(1) Forest Resources forest biomass resources is the process of forest growth and forest production to provide biomass sources, including firewood in the forest tending and thinning operations in scattered timber, residual branches, leaves and wood chips, etc.; timber harvesting transport and processing of the branches, sawdust, wood chips, Shaotou, slab and cut top; forestry by-products of waste, if the shell and stone, etc.(2) agricultural resources agricultural biomass resource is agricultural crops (including energy crops); agricultural production process waste, such as when left in the fields harvesting crops within the crop stalks (corn stalks, sorghum stalks, wheat straw, rice straw, Doujie and cotton stalks, etc.); agricultural processing waste, such as the agricultural production process in the remaining rice husk, etc. Energy refers to a variety of plants to provide energy, plants, usually herbaceous energy crops, including, oil crops, extraction of hydrocarbons and other types of plants and aquatic plants.(3) of domestic sewage and industrial organic wastewater sewage mainly by urban residents, commerce and services a variety of drainage component, such as cooling water, shower drain, toilet drain, laundry drain, kitchen drain, waste water and so on. Industrial organic wastewater is mainly alcohol, wine, sugar, food, pharmaceutical, paper making industry and slaughter of the production process of the wastewater, etc., which are rich in organic matter.(4) municipal solid waste, municipal solid waste mainly by the urban living garbage, commercial garbage service and a small amount of construction waste and other solid waste composition. Its composition is complex, affected by the average standard of living of local residents, the energy consumption structure, urban construction, natural conditions, customs and traditions as well as seasonal changes and other factors.
At some stage in documenting your family tree, it is important to start in search of files of your family. They speak on behalf of those who came before you! The important issue is how to find these. The obvious place is to search online for facts. Some internet sites have popped up throughout the years just as people look to previous times to find out their roots. Here are some to see:RootswebExactlty what can you expect to find on these web sites? Birth together with death certificates, marriage licenses together with divorce decrees, military services records and in some cases tax information in many cases. And a second spot to look for these records is in your home town or perhaps the hometowns of your family members.Public offices, clearks and even courts make the perfect spot to check for [url=]geneology records[/url].You might also prefer to check with local newspapers for obituaries. All of these small summaries could maintain evidence to spouses, children, parents along with siblings of your ancestors. Churches may possibly as well own significant information to peice together your past. Baptisms, christenings, first communions, and so on., may be written about and even on file and also offer valuable dates and also names.The superior news is that you are gathering up information and also adding it to your collection of data so that others won’t really need to reinvent the wheel! And with the web pages, you can select to scan virtually any records you find together with upload them onto the web to share with others in their family search.