US Biotech Market Analysis Market Report


The US represents the world’s largest biotechnology market, leading with its innovation, extensive R&D, and regular company developments in various spheres of the biotechnology sector. On the back of rising instances of innovations in the information technology, world-class healthcare infrastructure, and active participation by private players, the US biotech industry has grown stupendously in the past few years.The report, “US Biotech Market Analysis”, covers the Medical Biotechnology, Agricultural Biotechnology, and Industrial Biotechnology segments of the sector. The research finds out which is the largest segment in the biotechnology sector, and why. It also discusses the wider role of the technology. According to our report, biotech funding has been a major source of growth in the US biotech industry as venture capital and financing by other sources continue to provide the momentum. The structure of financing has been strengthening over the past few years with IPOs, FPOs, public and private sector, and venture funds contributing significantly to the industry developments. Rising focus of companies towards drug development, increasing coverage of various diseases, and significant market potential are some of the prominent factors propelling investments in the recent years. market research reportsThe report also elaborates the important Bio-clusters prevailing in the US and analyses their growth. It observed that California accounted for the highest growth and attracted maximum funds for research activities. How much employment this cluster generated in the biopharmaceutical sector, has also been covered in the study.Biotechnology is a priority sector for the government, which has been backing significant developments in the industry. The report identifies key trends in the sector. Of these, bio-similars are found to drive the market positively. It also highlights the competitive landscape in the US biotechnology sector, and lists significant developments of the key players in the segment.The report finds that the future outlook of the US biotech sector is positive with a substantial amount of investment expected in the research and entrepreneurship development in near future.List of Figures:Figure 2-1: Global – Biotechnology Market (Billion US$), 2010-2014Figure 2-2: Biotechnology Market (Billion US$), 2010-2014Figure 2-3: Share of Public and Private Sector Companies in Biotech Industry (2010)Figure 2-4: Bio-pharmaceutical Exports (Billion US$), 2005 & 2010Figure 2-5: Bio-pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure (Billion US$), 2007-2010Figure 2-6: Farm Scale Revenues from Major Genetically Modified Crops (Billion US$), 2008-2010Figure 2-7: Ethanol Production (Billion Gallons), 2009-2014Figure 4-1: Biotech Financing (Billion US$), 2007-2010Figure 4-2: Biotech Financing by Type (%), 2010Figure 5-1: Massachusetts – Share in US Biotech Venture Capital Investment (2007-2010)Figure 5-2: Massachusetts – Number of Drugs under Development PhasesFigure 5-3: New York – Employment in Biotechnology R&D (2007 & 2010)Figure 6-1: Number of Clinical Trials by Phase (2010)Figure 6-2: Number of Clinical Trials by Disease Area (2009)For more information kindly visit :US Biotech Market AnalysisOrBharat Book BureauTel: +91 22 27810772 / 27810773Fax: + 91 22 27812290Email: info@bharatbook.comWebsite: http://www.bharatbook.comFollow us on twitter: !/Sandhya3B

Advanced Biometrics Services Provided By CRO’s


Medical Science and technology has been joining hands for a while now to come up with advanced devices and treatment methods. On the similar line, biometrics technology has been present for a long time since the time of a standard finger scanner. This technology has been extremely useful in the healthcare and security and surveillance industry. However, there has been a much of the progress biometrics system in the last decade.The eye sensor controlled wheel chair is perhaps one of the innovative developments that has taken place in this field some time back. To explain in simple terms, this chair is programmed to move automatically in a specific direction with the help of an eyeball movement detection sensor. Though there are numerous medical discoveries that are being made in this vertical, today eminent medical institutions and organizations a are expanding and experimenting with their Biometrics service portfolio.Biometric Services Provided By Indian CRO’sIn the recent past, well known Indian Clinical Research Organization has come up with their specialized Biometrics department and a team of expert professionals that help in clinical trial and other relevant medical studies. All these are conducted within the CRO’s bio clinical laboratory and the services offered are used by other medical research, diagnostics, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical companies.Eminent CRO’s sometimes acts dedicated partner for the success of their client’s clinical development program. For this their specialized Biometrics team works towards speeding up the regulatory submission process and minimize timelines by innovative thinking. The Biometrics service portfolio includes the following:-Database Programming* CRF Design (paper & electronic)* CRF Annotation* Database Programming* Validation Checks* Metadata Repository ManagementData Management* Data Acquisition* Data Reconciliation* Discrepancy Management* Medical Coding (MeDRA & WHODD)* Database Lock* Data Extraction for ReportingPharmacokinetic & Pharmacodynamic Studies* Sampling Point Estimation* Technical Document Review* PK/PD Query Resolution* PK/PD Subject Matter Expert* Pharmacokinetic support across study engagementPK/PD Reporting* SDMS Data Extraction* PK Data Analysis* PK Summary ReportingBiostatistics* Randomization* Sample size estimation* Trial Design Inputs* Statistical Analysis Plan* Statistical Analysis* Biostatistics Subject Matter ExpertStatistical Reporting* TLF Programming* CDISC Data Mapping (SDTM & Adam)* Clinical Data Repository* Pooled Data Analysis & Reporting* Safety (ADR) Reporting* Patient Profiles & Data Cleaning ReportingToday Biometrics technology is taking a great leap and making path breaking discoveries and has the capacity to be helpful to people with total paralysis. Furthermore, it is also useful for testing sponsors and medical students. The testing sponsors can secure the benefits of the credentialled program by retaining the integrity of the testing procedure.

Preclinical MRI


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools in modern science. Since its discovery 50 years ago, in 1945, it has spread from physics to chemistry, biosciences, material research and medical diagnosis.NMR spectroscopy uses the magnetic property, called spin, of a nucleus in an atom. When a sample is set in a strong magnetic field, it is possible to transfer energy into the spin system in the form of radiofrequency pulses and change the state of the system. After the pulse, the system relaxes back to its state of equilibrium, sending a weak signal that can be recorded. Because every nuclear spin in a molecule senses also the small magnetic fields of its nearest neighbours, it is possible to separate the signals coming from different atomic surroundings. The structure of the molecule can be determined from these individual signals.Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) exploits the nuclear magnetic alignments of different atoms inside a magnetic field to generate images. An MRI machine consists of large magnets that generate magnetic fields around the target of analysis. These magnetic fields cause paramagnetic atoms such as hydrogen, gadolinium, and manganese to align themselves in a magnetic dipole along the magnetic fields, created by the radiofrequency (RF) coils inside the MRI machine. What the machine captures from the subject is the relaxation of the atoms as they return to their normal alignment when the RF pulse is temporarily ceased. With this data, a computer will generate an image of the subject based on the resonance characteristics of different tissue types.MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a scanning method developed primarily for use in medicine to provide doctors with the ability to view all sorts of body structures and organs including soft tissues. MRI is arguably the greatest advance in diagnostic medical techniques over the past century.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in preclinical research on experimental small animals.Studies have typically been aimed at understanding the patophysiological status and evaluating the efficacy/side effects of newly developed treatments such as pharmaceutical and regenerative medicine.Although small animal scanners are superior to clinical scanners in terms of providing a better signal-to-noise ratio, the available pulse sequences are different from those in clinical scanners, and the magnetic field strength is often much higher.Small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are currently one of the premier research tools available to probe and validate structural and functional relationships at the biosystem, cellular or molecular level. In fact, a growing number of MRI facilities dedicated to imaging small animal models of disease now exist in a variety of environments encompassing pharmaceutical, medical and basic science research. Preclinical Imaging studies are typically performed at high magnetic field strengths, yielding high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and soft tissue contrast compared to other available modalities.Preclinical MRI applications.The range of preclinical MRI applications includes brain and organ imaging, tumor assessment, disease progression and functional imaging. Other potential research applications include investigation of new contrast mechanisms and agents, monitoring gene expression, analysis of protein interactions, and determination of pharmacokinetics.A majority of preclinical studies, especially those that involve characterization of disease progression and response to therapy in transgenic animal models, require an elaborate experimental design using large cohorts of animals. The acquisition of these large MRI data sets can be expensive, time consuming and labor intensive. Therefore, automation techniques to improve throughput, increase efficiency and/or improve accuracy would represent a significant advance, especially with regard to screening and phenotyping animals.Advantages of pre-clinical MRI:Good spatial resolution, up to 100 �m and even 25 �m in very high strength magnetic fields. Has excellent contrast resolution to distinguish between normal and pathological tissue. Preclinical-MRI can be used in a wide variety of applications, including anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging. Safety: since micro-MRI’s mechanism is based on a magnetic field, it is much safer compared to radiation based imaging modalities such as micro-CT and micro-PET.Weaknesses:One of the biggest drawbacks of micro-MRI is its cost. Depending on the magnetic strength (which determines resolution), systems used for animal imaging between 1.5 and 14 teslas in magnetic flux density range from $1 million to over $6 million, with most systems costing around $2 million. Extremely long image acquisition time, spanning into minutes and even hours. This may negatively affect animals that are anesthetized for long periods of time. In addition, micro-MRI typically captures a snapshot of the subject in time, and thus it is unable to study blood flow and other real-time processes well. Even with recent advances in high strength functional micro-MRI, there is still around a 10-15 second lag time to reach peak signal intensity, making important information such as blood flow velocity quantification difficult to access.

Expert Assistance in Optometry


The time is to think beyond component sourcing with next generation optical element design and complete prototyping services. The expertise of electronic design professionals has simplified the opto-mechanical systems to a great extent. Apart from quality, the cost of products is another most important consideration while someone opts for the supplies from optical manufacturers. And, that is the reason why it is essential to come up with quality assurance keeping the dexterity within budget. Not only the companies, but nowadays the individuals with requirements for lens design are involving the professional consultants to simplify their tasks. Let’s find how the lens design consultants are actually contributing in the biomedical industry! With advancement of biotechnology, the laser scanning system requires non-contact measurement with superior sensitivity in addition to the microarray images in high resolution. Besides, in metrological practice, the microarray biochip images essentially need ultra wave sensor or optical detector in the imaging system. In order to perfectly address such advanced biomedical needs, the development of micro-meter focusing, and scanning lenses are now in practice. An electronic design consultant works with the customer specific development protocols to come up with highly tailored solutions, which in turn enable the company to provide with cutting edge metrology tools at appreciably lower prices. The biomedical instruments such as microscope, mass spectroscope, blood gas analysis system, and others extensively use illumination and micro imaging systems. In non-contact metrology, the unique property of telecentric lens is used by the professional lens designers. The lens characteristically maintains constant magnification over a specific range of object distance. A lens design consultant suggests using this mechanism to get accurate dimensional measurement, especially for the inspection of three dimensional or 3D objects. The concept is not really that new but has recently been implemented in optical metrology to avoid inherent distortions and attain optimum accuracy. However, it is difficult if not impossible to get the accuracy in measuring the object’s position, length and straightness if the defined telecentric depth is not maintained. The professional electronic design consultants serve their customers, individuals and companies whoever require the expertise, with advanced techniques and technologies. They mostly provide with complete subsystem production and prototyping solutions for a variety of devices. Precision is accomplished by using state of the art engineering tools and devices. Their keen observation to the minute details of opto-mechanical systems enables the manufacturers and users to answer many important questions about the structures and functions of the devices more efficiently. No matter whether it is a small or high volume production, the consultants are there to support the ventures from every possible aspect. Starting from simple optical sub-assemblies to the design and development of next generation metrology tools, a professional electronic design consultant can help materializing the ideas with great precision. However, one cannot expect the superior quality service from just about any consultant or service providers as the skill set depends solely on reflective knowledge and profound experience. However, not to worry, a little Google search should yield the options to attain ultimate optometric solution from the renowned experts.

CAS Dataloggers Introduces Pharmaceutical Temperature Monitor


Accsense Cloud-Based Wireless Solution Monitors Medical FreezersCHESTERLAND OH-March 14, 2012Pharmacies across the country constantly work to comply with increasingly demanding FDA regulations, especially 21-CFR part 11, in the storage of their temperature-sensitive life science products. Unfortunately, medical freezers often fluctuate in temperature due to uneven cooling and prolonged door opening among other causes, and these risks can be tough for staff to identify–is the door opening too frequently or is something else to blame? CAS DataLoggers now offers pharmacies an ideal solution with the Accsense A1-08 Wireless Temperature Data Logger, an automated wireless temperature monitoring and alarming system designed to protect customers’ life science materials. This wireless pod can connect to 6 NTC thermistor inputs monitoring at the critical -40??C (-40??F) range, significantly reducing user cost per measurement. The Accsense system provides users with cloud-based data storage and reporting and also serves as a convenient temperature alarm system complete with email, pager, and phone alert capabilities. Combined with the Accsense B1-06 Wireless Data Logger Gateway, these cost-effective data loggers offer customers a complete wireless monitoring system with the ability to view and remotely access data in real-time, transmitting recorded temperature data online for easy storage and analysis. Accsense automated monitoring eliminates the need for manual recording and is much less expensive, more reliable, and offers more data storage and regulatory documentation.The wireless pod’s internal ambient temperature sensor has a temperature range of -40??C to +70??C (-40??F to 158??F), and features 6 NTC thermistor inputs monitoring across -40??C to +112??C (-40??F to 233??F). Offering 2 digital inputs, the A1-08 pod can be connected to a wide variety of digital sensors to provide effortless and dependable online monitoring, including alarms indicating when the freezer is open. Offering pinpoint data logging accuracy to protect valuable samples and goods, all the Accsense system’s temperature measurements are made at a highly precise 0.1??C resolution, and the user-set sampling rate can be anywhere from 30 seconds to every 24 hours. In this way, intelligent alarms can be configured to trigger if 3 samples in a row see that the door is open; alternately, alarms can be set to trigger when only 1 sample reveals an open door. To deal with sudden power outages, each pod has an emergency buffer of 250 samples per sensor. The multi-thermistor pod’s range extends out to 250 ft. outdoors and 90 ft. indoors without obstructions, and the datalogger can run on either battery or AC power.The Accsense system’s advanced functionality offers users online graphing, reporting, and configuration features essential for compliance with 21-CFR part 11 and legal liability by closely monitoring and recording sensitive goods in storage. All the system requires is an RJ45 Ethernet connection with open internet access to start recording, entirely removing the need for troublesome installation and wiring. Accsense wireless dataloggers automatically send all recorded data to Rackspace, the manufacturer’s completely secure cloud server, where it is immediately stored and available using a backed-up online Accsense Account. Customers’ accounts give instant access to charts showing all measurement history with ranges as narrow as 5 minutes or as wide as 90 days, and also offer a customizable interface with a dashboard showing the most recent measurements from all sensor pods. Measurement data can also be downloaded for offline analysis. Since all the data instantly goes out to the Web, Accsense is the only system on the market that has virtually NO impact on the existing infrastructure, including server structure, IT overhead, and only a minimal impact on bandwidth.The wireless gateway includes FREE software and feature upgrades, with no software installation or firewall configuration required. Manual vertical scaling allows for consistency across multiple graphs and samples. Using an online account subscription with each gateway, users can plot measurement history and analyze tabular data. The secure servers can also send out configurable voice, text or email alarms (with premium subscription) to inform the supplier and authorized staff when a temperature reading falls out of range–the same alarm can even be sent to multiple locations! Additionally, data sent online can be downloaded as a CSV file and loaded into most database applications, and users can quickly download measurement data for offline analysis and grant password-protected, limited access to other operators. The gateway’s internal data storage can even compensate in the event of Internet outages. Using a standard web browser, users can sign in to access reports and graphs or modify the system configuration from anywhere an internet connection is available.Each A1-08 wireless pod comes delivered in a package containing an AC adapter, wall mounting and bracket, a standard antenna, 3 AA batteries, and more, providing a simple yet reliable temperature monitoring system.

The Pathfinder Biotechnology Institute in Delhi!


Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses on engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bio-products. Biotechnology/Life sciences are amongst the leading and most significant applied sciences in today’s era. Biotechnology is one of the latest developed sciences and evolved on the basis of proteomics and genomics. It is a research oriented and firmemerging inter-disciplinary field. The Pathfinder academy provides you an opportunity to get involved with the latest developing sciences which is future promising too.Founded back in the year 2003, Pathfinder academy was a result of the travail of great visionary Mr. Pranay Kumar, scholar from JNU, New Delhi and visiting faculty Dept. of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. It was established with the goal of providing a priceless opportunity to those aspirants who want a distinguished and shining future in biotechnology/life sciences.It was his ambition and toil that made Pathfinder Academy, a pioneer institute that is contributing the nation with coaching for biotechnology entrance examinations and CSIR-JRF-NET/GATE and help them seek admission in leading institutes for higher education with a strong established foundation. There is nothing that precludes us from being informed, modified, rendered, furnished and be up-to-date.At Pathfinder academy, we believe in application of biotechnology for the benefit of agronomy, environment, engineering and veterinary and human medications. For this, we develop mutually advantageous relationships with industry and concerned establishments to conduct research and economy transmission. As a personal responsibility towards society, we try to initiate and runinformative educational programs to ensure the large scale propagation of academic innovations to all strata of society. Pathfinder academy also takes various steps in promoting the education and training of biologists, engineers, agricultural personnel and medical technologists in the fields of genomic research, economic development and educational accessibility which are the pillars of biotechnology. We encourage our brilliant faculty, staff and aspiring scholars to exploit the extensive research amenities, interacting with commercial enterprises and provide them with wide variety of training services like Academic projects, Industrial training and workshops, etc.Biotechnology has proved to have incredible career prospects now and in future and Pathfinder welcomes you to interact and function in the most challenging and inviting discipline in sciences gaining both knowledge and career perspectives. For more details please visit:

Why so Many Research Chemicals?


We at Researchchemicals4u make no secret of the fact we have a wide variety of plant food chemicals, some of which, at first glance, seem remarkably similar. What, for example, is the difference between nrg-2 and nrg-3? Well, a chemist would say it??????s the R-groups ?????? the reactive part of the structure. NRG-2 is more potent than nrg-3, but acts in a different way.The reason these chemicals work at all is because they were originally developed to enhance neurotransmitter action in humans, and amazingly, plants have the same neurotransmitters – for example norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. Just as in mammals, norepinephrine is released in response to stress, forcing the plant to manufacture sugars and grow faster (the reason being, so it can propagate itself sooner ?????? the obvious way to escape danger is to grow somewhere else.) Serotonin is routinely produced in a range of plants including plantain, pineapple, banana, kiwifruit, plums, and tomatoes. It??????s also found in stinging nettles and tobacco plants, as well as some herbal remedies. However, its effect as a natural antidepressant is doubtful, as plant serotonin can??????t cross the blood-brain barrier.What is now known for certain is that when stimulated or stopped from being ??????switched off,?????? these transmitters have a beneficial effect on plant growth and propagation. It is for this reason that scientists buy NRG-3 ?????? to develop new plant foods. You may wonder why they don??????t just use NRG-2, as it??????s so potent. The reason is the same as for humans ?????? more isn??????t always a good thing.If plants are stimulated into growth too quickly, it places a heavy demand on nutrients in the soil. If these nutrients are readily available, the plant can suffer from ??????fertiliser burn?????? ?????? literally overdosing on soil chemicals. This can dry out the roots and even kill the plant. Sometimes, less potent research chemicals provide better results than highly active ones.

Improved Algorithm For Constructing The Structural Images of Biological Object in OCT


An improved algorithm of structural images of biological object for optical coherence tomography, which allows to increase the depth of coherent sensing and get a better quality picture. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged in the late eighties, early nineties of the twentieth century. [1] At the beginning of XXI century, it took its place in a number of medical diagnostic equipment. OCT uses optical signal reflected from the surfaces of different optical density, and in many ways is similar to ultrasound (U.S.) diagnosis. The probing depth of dense tissues OCT systems using wavelength ?? = 900 – 1300 nm, is 1-2 mm, which is significantly less than that of ultrasound systems [2, 3] and X-ray devices [4]. Due to the strong scattering of optical radiation in the dense biological tissues, OCT systems are used primarily for the study of the cornea, vitreous and retina. However, the resolution of OCT systems for one, two orders of magnitude higher resolution ultrasound systems for similar research, which is about 1 – 0.1 mm [2]. The aim of this work – to provide an improved algorithm for constructing the structural OCT images of biological object to allowing to increase the depth of coherent sensing and an image with high contrast and informative. Electrical signal received from the detectors OCT included in the balanced circuit, is amplified and digitized by the ADC mean intensity of the radiation reflected from the biological object. Preparation of 2-axis images of the interference signal is reduced to the construction of a spectrogram. The spectrogram is a function of two variables: time and frequency. That is, the interference signal as a function of one variable (time) is converted into a spectrogram is a function of two variables. To construct a spectrogram interference signal is divided into short time segments of equal length. Each of these segments is applied fast Fourier transform (STFT, among LabVIEW). At each of the segments of the spectrum is a complex-valued function of sample number (or time). It is known that a complex-valued function can not be built in one coordinate system in the plane. Therefore, the analysis of the spectrum usually build amplitude and phase spectra of any signal. The amplitude spectrum is a module of the complex spectrum and the phase – his argument. The spectrogram is a combination of the amplitude spectra, calculated on short segments, a function of two variables, or matrix. Similar treatment algorithm is shown in Figure 1. The algorithm can distinguish five fundamentally important stages: “Splitting the signal”, “Fourier transform”, “Isolation of the envelope”, “The logarithm of the envelope”, “Writing data to the matrix” Figure 1 – The processing algorithm of the electrical signal from the detectors optical coherence tomography The next stage of the signal processing is to use the fast Fourier transform to each segment. Since the path difference scanning interferometer arms varies continuously scanning optical delay line, theoretically window Fourier transform, must also move continuously at one point, but it makes the signal processing is quite long, on the order of minutes. Empirically, it has been shown that the signal processing is shifted to the window of 70-80% has the same contrast ratio as well as the continuous shift – to a point. It takes 2 – 5 seconds when using a computer with average parameters (single-core processor 2.4 GHz, 512 MB RAM). Using a powerful computer and specialized software, this time can be reduced to one second. This approach delivers images in real time and visual feedback when using live biomedical facility. Signal processing is shifted windows by 70-80% – is an important feature of our proposed treatment of the electrical signal. [5] The next stage of the signal processing is to separate the spectral envelope of the signal received by the Fourier transform of each segment. An important feature of the received signal is its symmetry with respect to zero,the optical path difference of the waves. This is explained by the fact that the result of the Fourier transform is complex function, the real part of which is symmetric, and the imaginary antisymmetric. Since in real applications is a real part of the signal or its magnitude, the reconstructed signal has a balanced view. In addition to the symmetry of the signal spectral OCT has another important feature – the imposition of a mirror of the complex conjugate signal. If the optical path difference between the reference wave and the wave of the biological object is zero useful signal is superimposed on the autocorrelation component, in which case there will be multiple image artifacts. This can be avoided by placing biological object so that his first boundary was removed from the position of zero path difference of the waves in the interferometer by an amount greater than the optical thickness of the object itself. [5] The next stage will be the logarithm of the envelope interference signal of each segment. It is necessary to correct symmetry. When logarithm removed part located below the zero path difference of the waves. The final step is to combine the processing of amplitude spectra, calculated on short segments in the matrix. The data basis for this matrix imaging. Literature

Advances in Acrp30 Antibody Research


Acrp30, familiarly known as adiponectin, is a member of the adipocytokine family – cytokines expressed specifically in the adipose tissue. Our antibody catalogue contains 24 adiponectin antibodies, proteins and lysates, which have come under the spotlight recently with respect to mitochondrial biogenesis.Acrp30 is known to positively regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. Adiponectin deficiency is connected to obesity resulting from dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. In 2003, Yamauchi et al identified two binding receptors, Adiponectin Receptor 1and 2 (Adipo R1/R2, also known as Adipor1/2). Further research revealed Adipo R1 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, the body’s main site for the utilising of glucose.Recently, M. Iwabu et al published a paper confirming Adipor1 was integral to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, using an Adipo R1-deficient mouse model (the muscle-Adipo R1KO strain). Exceptionally high levels of plasma glucose and insulin were revealed in vivo, while antibody assays revealed significant alterations in signalling molecules phosphorylated by insulin stimulation, among them p70 S6 kinase, IRS-1, Akt and JNK. Decreased activity of mitochondria-specific proteins, including the transcription factor PGC1, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, were also noted. Other effects included enhanced oxidative stress in the muscle tissue, and impaired fatty acid oxidation. Despite the absence of Adipor1, some of these effects were partially overcome when muscle-Adipo R1KO mice were subjected to exercise, indicating exercise as a possible therapeutic tool in humans deficient in adiponectin.A number of in vitro knockdown studies, involving a number of antibodies, siRNAs and specific inhibitors, were then performed on normal mouse myocyes. It was seen that Adiponectin-induced mitochondrial biogenesis was reduced when Adipo R1, CAMKK beta, PGC1 alpha and AMPK alpha1/alpha 2 were inhibited. Also, PGC1 alpha expression was blocked when CAMKK beta and Adipo R1 were inhibited by siRNAs.The studies showed Adiponectin mediated extracellular calcium influx in normal cells. In the absence of Adipo R1 this mechanism was defective. It was suggested that Adiponectin-induced calcium influx is essential for activation of a signalling cascade, involving CaMKK beta, PGC1 alpha, AMPK and SIRT1, which ultimately promotes transcription of mitochondrial biogenesis proteins via the transcription factor PGC1.Studies continue into Adipor1 signalling and the calcium influx. We at Novus Biologicals have an extensive antibody catalog covering this area of research.

Are Algal Blooms Becoming Worse?


The problems associated with harmful algal bloom (HABs) have become tremendous, resulting to huge economic deficit and serious health issues. The accumulation of HABs in public and commercial water systems has been rampant, inflicting critical health and ecological problems among waterways and wetlands around the world.Most problems attached with HABs infestation are economic related which include lost of revenue, consumer fears, and shift in livelihoods. Almost $82 million loss has been recorded each year in United States alone due to the impact of harmful algae bloom. The total estimated deficit was taken from public health and commercial fisheries sectors in U.S. In 2005, New England’s economy was paralyzed due to Alexandrium fundyense bloom (commonly known as red tide). Closure of shellfish harvesting had been mandated to prevent the cases of shellfish poisoning, and this brought massive loss, approximately $18 million, in the shellfish industry. Texas did not escape the threat of algal bloom as the Karenia brevis outbreak caused chaos in the coastal waters. In the height of summer 2000, the fish kills spread in many areas in Texas which prompted the closure of shellfish harvesting, resulting to millions of deficit from fishery closures and costs from water cleanup.Toxic algal bloom is being feared for its damaging effects on commercial fisheries and marine environments. Algal bloom effects include the production of harmful toxins that are dangerous or fatal to humans and other organisms. Meanwhile, some species of algae can be non-toxic to humans and animals but adversely damage the ecosystem by forming large blooms that cover corals and the entire sea floor. Human health and ecosystem are at stake when HABs increase and remain untreated.So what is algal bloom? Some species of algae, including cyanobacteria, are responsible for blooms. Algal bloom happens when the population of algae increase rapidly, causing damaging effects to aquatic environments. Lakes, ponds, and slow-moving rivers are prone to algal bloom infestation.Algae bloom is a natural phenomenon that may arise invariably, depending on weather and water conditions. Blooms are widespread during summer or spring due to the sudden change in temperature. Most algal blooms crop up under favourable conditions: excess nutrients, direct heat, and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen. However, human activity greatly contributes to the expansion of algae bloom. For example, in urban areas, the nutrients from septic tanks and sewage treatment plants can overflow and pollute the waterways or systems. Likewise, in rural areas, agricultural runoff from pesticides and other waste coming from fields may increase the pollution from water features such as lakes, rivers and estuaries.An algal bloom is also part of the natural aging process of lake. However, severe blooms occur when dead algae deplete the levels of oxygen in the water. In highly eutrophic lakes, algal blooms may lead to anoxia and fish kills during the summer.It is advisable to expedite the removal of HABS on commercial fisheries and other marine waters to prevent further damage. There are number of algae solutions formulated to treat and prevent algae infestation.